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About Kornati

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kornati-nautilus@globalnet.hr photo: mirjana matoš
source: Basic geological map, interpreter for the Šibenik Papers, K33-8, P.Mamužić and associates
TECTONICS  In correspondance to a large geotectonic unit of Istria-Dalmatia (folding in NW-SE direction), the area of Murter belongs to  the structural unit of Cretaceous-Paleogene folding complex that goes from island of Zirje to Mala Cista.  The main characteristic of folding complex is a series of narrow and long, vertical, diagonal and lodged Dinaric folds and a  series of reverse faults of identical direction that form laminate structures. Considering the tectonics of the island of Murter it  is worth mentioning that the formation of the main structures is conditioned by orogenetic Pyrenean stage and creating a  reverse fault system spreading from Tisno-Vodice and Murter Island-Kaprije, leading to abnormal contact Senonian rudist  limestones and dolomites in time of transition from lower to upper chalk. The faults are therefore relatively steep and angled toward the northeast showing southwest tectonic transport direction of  the main units. TERRAIN STRUCTURES The predominant area of the island of Murter and surrounding region is covered by developed Cretaceous and Tertiary  sediments which are covered with Quaternary sediments. The oldest sediments are gray dolomites (fine grain structure with  a high percentage of dolomite, 70-85%) with the transition from lower to upper Cretaceous and the Cenomanian and  Turonian timeline. Thicknesses of these gray dolomites is about 300 meters deep and they form the southwestern slopes of  the island of Murter.  In further succession (Cenomanian-Maastricht), we find early-diagenetic dolomites exchanging with limestones that are rich  with fossil content about 1200 meters thick, which are also part of the geological structure of Murter. The fossil content is  based mostly on macrofossils Cretaceous rudist (Radiolites lusitanicus, Hippurites Requiemi, etc.), shellfish (Neithea cf.  Inconstans, Chondrodonta jadnnae etc.) and gastopoda and microfossils (Nummolculina cf. Heim, Cuneolina cylindrica etc.) They are overlapped by transgressive brackish to freshwater limestones (50 m thick) Paleocene-Eocene age, known as  "Liburnian deposits." Limestones are very rich by detritus Chara, small gastropods (Coskinolina liburnica, Lituonella  liburnica), foraminifera and plant particles. The sequence is prevalent mostly in land area, stretching from Sibenik-Skradin-  Zaton. To them or directly to the Upper Cretaceous rudist limestone are sequencing the Lower-Middle Eocene limestones  (Alveolina oblongd, Orbitollites complanatus, Assilina washes, etc.) of a thickness of 250 m. In the coastal area there are sequences of Eocene-Oligocene marls and sandstones of exceptional lateral and vertical facies  changes. Change of marl and sandstone is also very phosilipher, containing fragments of shells, corals and foraminifera  (thickness of about 2200 meters). Furthermore, as the younger sediments in direction of Skradin-Pramatovci-Ostrovičke Lišane there can be found  osteoclastic series of conglomerates with layers of limestone and marl. The youngest sediments are Quaternary (sands,  gravels, travertine and different kinds of soil and wetland and lake sediments).  Bojan Matoš
The Kornati archipelago consists of 152 islands of which 89 are located within the National Park. They arose 15.000 years ago, after global warming that raised sea levels by 100 m and left Kornati as peaks of previous hills. Kornati rocks are 100 million years old (Cretaceous) and on the surface one may find fossils of ancient marine organisms that lived in former Tethys Ocean. In the 14th century they were called Encoronata. They were owned by Byzantine emperors (6th century), the Venetian Republic (15th century), Zadar nobility (16th and 17th century) who finally allow Murter people grazing for a fee. In the seabed part of the Kornati islands, representatives of floral life are mostly red algae, and a bit less brown and green  algae. The fauna consists of corals, polychaete worms, crabs, echinoderms and fish of which you can find out more here.